Monthly Archives: October 2018

Giving Credit (citations)

You need to be able to work with citations for two reasons:
  1. to give credit for the sources you use
  2. to be able to recognize citation patterns in order to determine source type.

This reading will discuss the general patterns that citations follow.  Learning these patterns will help you figure out what kind of source you’re dealing with when you find a reference and will make it easier to do citations for sources you use in your research.

NOTE:  Formatting specific types of sources will be covered in the readings for that type of source.

You must give credit, or cite, all sources that you use in your paper or research project.  To do this, you use notes and citations (also called references.)   Notes & citations perform two functions:
  • They give credit to authors and other creators
  • They give information about a source so that anyone can find it
    • Since you are usually the person who needs to find the source again, it’s in your best interests to be complete.
When you use a note or citation to give credit to a source, you are citing or documenting or referencing that source.

Different groups have developed specific styles, or formats, for creating notes & citations.

 Style guides and manuals provide information about and examples of, specific styles.

The three most frequently used styles are:

  • Chicago/Turabian (University of Chicago Press)
  • MLA (Modern Language Association)  
  • APA (American Psychological Association)

Style guides & manuals provide examples of how to format notes and citations for different types of sources.  They also include the rationale behind the formatting.  Knowing the rationale can help you decide how to do a citation when there isn’t an exact example to follow.

  • Some fields, especially the sciences, refer users to important academic journals  in the field for examples.

Be aware that each style capitalizes titles differently, treats authors’ names differently, puts the year of publication in different places,  and uses different punctuation.

NOTE:   You are responsible for making sure that things are spelled correctly, capitalized correctly, etc.  Word and other citation  programs, such as eTurabian & Zotero, will NOT do that for you.

In addition to examples of citations, style guides also give information on how to do a title page, format captions for images, and  how to do notes, bibliographies and works cited lists, etc.

The  OWL at Purdue University  is a really good online guide to the most common styles.   OWL stands for Online Writing Lab.

In this class you will be required to use Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th edition,   MLA 8th edition or APA 6th edition.   It’s very easy for me to tell when you don’t use the right version, so make sure you use the correct one.  The examples at the OWL@Purdue show the correct versions.  Word does not have the correct version of Chicago/Turabian and may not have the correct MLA & APA, depending on the version of Word you have.   This will be explained in detail in future assignments.

 A WORD ABOUT CHICAGO/TURABIAN:  Turabian style and Chicago style are almost the same thing.  Turabian  is Chicago style that has been adapted for use by students who are writing research papers, theses, and dissertations.  Chicago  style is more for use by people writing books.  For this class, you may use them interchangeably.
Chicago/Turabian gives you the option of using an author/date system or a footnotes/bibliography system.  Because the History Department mostly uses the footnotes/bibliography style, this course will cover just that version.  It may also be called Chicago/Turabian  (or just Chicago or just Turabian) humanities style.  NOTE:  if you’re given a choice, use the author/date system – it’s much, much easier.  A few professors may require you to use an older style where all citation information appears in a footnote.
Notes give credit for a specific quotation,  interpretation, or other piece of information used in the body of a paper, presentation, etc.  Notes are also called footnotes, endnotes,  and parenthetical references.
Each type of note is, of course,  formatted differently.  There are specialized styles where the citation and the note are combined into a footnote or endnote.   Chicago/Turabian used to require this combo note/bibliography style, but no longer does so.  It’s still used by some historians and in some scientific fields.

Word, just to make things difficult, calls notes citations.



Citations give credit to a source as a whole – a whole book, a whole article, a whole web page, etc.  Citations are also called bibliographic citations or references.   Every note should have a matching citation in the bibliography (or reference list or works cited list.)    Also list sources you consulted, even if you didn’t need to use a note. (Exception:  you can leave out sources that you used only for general background, such as encyclopedias.)  

Not sure whether to include a citation?  Better safe than sorry:  include it.

Word, continuing to be difficult,  calls  citations sources in a bibliography or sources in a works cited list.
Remember that Word usage is:
  • Citation =  what most people call a note (includes endnotes and footnotes)
  • Source in a bibliography, reference list or works cited list =  what most people call a citation, bibliographic citation or reference.
A bibliography is a list of sources consulted when writing a paper, preparing a presentation, research project etc.   A Bibliography is also called a reference list or a works cited list.
It often seems like citations are incomprehensible masses of information with an insane use of punctuation. This is only partially true.  All citation styles use the same basic pattern, they just mix it up a bit.
Why do you need to learn citation patterns?    Once you know citation patterns, you will:
  • Be able to understand citations even in styles you don’t know.
  • Be able to put the right information into the right box when using Word’s reference feature or a program like Zotero, eTurabian, or EasyBib.
  • Be able to determine if the citation is for a book or a journal article or a web page.

ANOTHER WORD about Chicago/Turabian:  Chicago/Turabian consists of two styles.  The first is the notes/bibliography/style, often referred to as Chicago/Turabian Humanities.  This style uses footnotes or endnotes plus a bibliography at the end.

 The second style is the author/date style, sometimes referred to as the parenthetical reference style.  Notes take the form of short references in parentheses in the body of the paper,  plus a reference list.
In this class, we will use the notes/bibliography style  as it’s the one used by most history faculty.
FOR THIS CLASS, you will need to understand how citations are formatted for a bibliography or reference list.  You will not be asked to do footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical references.

 Italics, capitalization, punctuation, etc. in the examples below are identical to what you would expect to find in an actual citation.
APA citations are easily spotted because the date follows the author’s name.  If there is no author, APA citations start with the title followed by the date.
 NOTE:  Chicago/Turabian parenthetical style also has the date after the author’s name.

Chicago/Turabian author/date is very similar to APA.  Remember, for this class, you will only need to learn Chicago/Turabian Humanities.  Chicago/Turabian Humanities is similar to MLA.

 NOTE:  MLA no longer requires a medium of publication (for example:  print or web).


Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)  

Author. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
MLA 8th
Author. Title of Book. Publisher location: Publisher name, year of publication.
APA 6th
Author. (Date of publication). Title of book.Publisher location: Publisher name.


Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)  
Author.  “Title of Article.” Title of Journal.  volume number, issue number  (year):  page numbers  accessed Month day, year, URL  (if DOI* is available, use the DOI in place of the URL)  
MLA 8th
Author. “Title of Article.”Title of Journal volume, issue, (date): page numbers. Database publisher or URL if no database. Day Mon. year.

APA 6th

Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:0000/00000 (or URL for journal’s home page if no DOI*.)

WHAT’S A DOI?  DOI stands for digital object identifier.  It’s like a social security number for articles and other similar pieces of information.  You can use the DOI to search for an article, but the system is still developing.  Right now, it’s still better to search for an author and title.

(Cite a single web page.  Don’t cite the whole website unless you’re using it as an example.)

Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)  

Author. “Title of Web Page.”Title of Website. Publication date if known.  Accessed Month day, year, URL

MLA 8th

Author. “Title of Article.”Title of the Website.Publisher Name, Day Mon. Year.  Day Mon. Year retrieved.

 APA 6th

Author. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of the Website. Retrieved from URL of specific article


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Example: Assignment 2: Information Ethics athenaegis


Remember, you may need to hunt around to find the information for the citation.

Various Authors.  A 2001 Update in the Janet Dailey/Nora Roberts Plagiarism Case. All about Romance:  the Back Fence for Lovers of Romance Novels.  May 1, 2001.   (This whole thing is a citation.)

Do you have to write as much as I do below?  No.  You do have to write enough to provide all the necessary information.  In my experience, that means a minimum of 4-5 sentences.

This source is a series of messages that originally came from the All about Romance Potpourri Message Board and that were collected on the 2001 Update in the Janet Dailey/Nora Roberts Plagiarism Case web page cited above.   The original message board is no longer available. (This is one of the problems with using non-academic web sources – they can disappear.  Academic websites can vanish, but it’s much less common.)  The case referred to was a copyright infringement case in which best-selling romance author Janet Dailey admitted to plagiarizing from the even better selling romance author Nora Roberts.  Dailey settled the case, with Roberts donating the settlement money to literacy and writers’ organizations.

I would probably not use this source for a paper since the original message board is no longer in existence – the page I cite is a copy.   I”m using it here for three reasons:  1.) the current site ( owned the original message board.   2.  personal sources confirmed the copy was good & 3.  it’s a good example (see below). 

Reading the different messages, it is clear that the posters hold a variety of opinions as to whether Dailey’s plagiarism is really a bad thing..  One poster considered Dailey’s plagiarism/copyright infringement bad, but saw nothing wrong with copying music from less famous bands on the original Napster, even though that was copyright infringement too.

I think that what makes this source really valuable is that Nora Roberts, the writer who was plagiarized, posted.  Ms. Roberts points out that the plagiarism was not a single incident, but lasted more than seven years and involved 13 books.  She says that it was not a “victimless crime,”  and writes that she “would not wish this experience on anyone.”  Roberts states that there are moral  issues in addition to the legal/criminal issue of copyright infringement. (Roberts 30 April 2001)  I used only the last name and date in this note because the context of the paragraph makes it clear I’m referring to the web page cited above.  If I were doing a “real-life” parenthetical reference, I’d need to add information about the web page as well since her name doesn’t appear in the citation.

Note that I linked to Nora Robert’s post (above).  For many web uses, this is considered adequate – you are acknowledging that it’s not your work and referring back to the source.  For academic use (and best practice web use) you need to use a note (explanation in the text, footnote, endnote or parenthetical reference) to give specific credit for the quoted passages.  

 I’m using a parenthetical reference in this case.  Footnotes are at the bottom of a page, endnotes at the end of a paper (or book, etc.).  Since the note is to give credit for the quotes from Ms. Roberts’ posts, I used the date of her post and not the date of the web page.

I think this is a good example of plagiarism because it explains what it is, shows how people have differing views of the seriousness of  plagiarism and tells how being plagiarized affected the victim – in this case, Nora Roberts.



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Assignment 1: Research Questions , SalemWitchTrial

Question 1. What is your general topic? (1 pts)
The Salem Witch Trials
Question 2. (5 pts.)
a. What is your core question? (4 pts)
How did religion and the Salem Witch Trials influence each other?
b. Explain (in 2-3 sentences) why you chose to research this aspect of the
topic (1 pts)
I am interested in how religion influenced peoples thinking of witches and
how they viewed magic. I also think it is interesting what part of their
religion made them fear these things, and why.
Question 3. (9 pts)
a. Write your research question. (4 pts)
How did religion influence the persecution of Salem “witches?”
b. b. List all of the keywords and key phrases in your research question. (3
Salem witch trials, Salem Witch, Religion and witches
c. List at least 2 alternative keywords/phrases you could use. (2 pts)

Christianity & Witches

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Assignment 1: Research Questions

What is your general topic?   

Who was Gaius Julius Caesar?


What is your core question?

Why is Gaius Julius Caesar a celebrated historical figure?

Explain (in 2-3 sentences) why you chose to research this aspect of the topic

I’ve always been interested in Roman history. Gaius Julius Caesar is one of the most famous Roman rulers and I would like to know how he changed Rome.


Write your research question.

How did Gaius Julius Caesar come to power?


List all of the keywords and key phrases in your research question.

“Rome before Caesar” and “Rome after Caesar” are very broad. “Rome under Caesar’s rule” and “the reign of Julius Caesar” are more specific. “Julius Caesar’s rivals” is even more specific. “Life of Gaius Julius Caesar” is even more specific.

List at least 2 alternative keywords/phrases you could use.  

“Early Roman Empire” is broader than “Julius Caesar”

“Victories of Julius Caesar” More Specific than “Roman victories”

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Assignment 1: Research Questions-kinghenrythefifth

  1. Topic: I’m interested in researching prostitution in Victorian Britain.
    • The topic of sex in Victorian Britain has always been fascinating to me because of the ironic manner. Victorian Britain is known to be extremely strict and conservative; however, the sexual practices and the wide existence of prostitution prove otherwise. Thus, I wanted to learn what kind of role and effect prostitution had in Victorian London.
  2. Core Question: What does prostitution tell us about the economic state of Britain in the 19th century?
    • I knew that a lot of the prostitution existed due to a lot of economic hardships in Victorian Britain and prostitution was the main source of income for many women. Thus, I wanted to dig deeper and learn more about what the existence of prostitution meant and what kind of an effect it had on the economy. I wanted to know if prostitution was fueling the economy in a positive way, or if it was creating a bigger problem in the economic growth of the time.
  3. Research Question: What kind of effect did prostitution have on the economic growth of 19th century Britain?
  4. Keywords and Keyphrases: “prostitution,” “Victorian Britain,” “economy,” “19th-century Britain,” “Victorian era,” “economic growth”
  5. Alternative Keywords and Keyphrases: “Sex trade,” “industrial London,” “19th-century England,” “society,” “progressive era”

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Assignment 1 – Research Question

Question #1: My general topic is the silk road and how it effected the economy

Question #2: a. My core question is: How the silk road effected the western economy of the old world.

b. I chose this topic because the silk road was a very significant trade route in the ancient world. With the main export being silk, China exported many other things which had an affect on the surrounding civilizations. Not only was it significant, I just don’t know that much about it and would like to learn more about the silk road and in what ways it expanded the world of trade.

Question #3:

a. What impact did the silk road have on the western economy?

b. silk road, old world, Chinese exports, western economy, western trade, eastern economy

c. Marco Polo, silk worms, eastern exports

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Assignment 1: Research Question


Question 1. What is your general topic?   

Baroque Music

In the Baroque time period, One thing that It was known for was its style of music. compared to the music today, the way it was played, the instruments, and the written music were all different. An example of this is that instead of the soloist being accompanied by a piano, it was a clavichord. Something unique about reading the music is the articulations. This includes things like trills, slurs, repeats, and special note ornamentation.

Question 2.   

 1. What is your core question? 

What influences in the Baroque period reflect in its music?

  1. Explain
    I’m currently studying flute here at Weber State. This semester, I am going to be performing 2-3 pieces from the baroque time period. Something interesting about the music from the period is on how you play it. (For example, the trills, the articulation, and the feeling it gives.) I thought it would be interesting to see what was behind the music and why. Some things that I wondered was: what was happening during this time period. What were the people and government like? Who were well known Baroque musicians? Or What drew the people to participate in the Baroque music?

Question 3.  

  1. Write your research question.
    In the Baroque time period, what societal influences reflected into the baroque music style?
  2.  List all of the keywords and key phrases in your research question.  (3 pts)
    “baroque music”, “societal influences”, “Baroque period”
  3. List at least 2 alternative keywords/phrases you could use.  (2 pts)

“Cultural influences”, “social effects”

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Assignment 1: Research Question-historicallyanxious

1. Topic: I’m curious about Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte.

Jean Bernadotte was one of Napoleon’s Field Marshalls.  He also married Napoleon’s former fiance, which is curious.  He was named the Prince of Pontecorvo by Napoleon and eventually became the king of Sweden.

2. Core Question: How and why did one of Napolean’s Field Marshalls become king of Sweden?

I’m interested in how a French Field Marshall with an obscure and lowly background became the king of Sweden.  What were the steps involved in this process?  Why would the Swedish government want a man who most likely would be loyal to Napolean as their king?  Did becoming king of Sweden make him a traitor to France?  How did the Swedish government even know who he was?  All of these questions make me curious to discover the answers and learn about this episode of history.

3. Research Question: What was the process of Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte becoming the King of Sweden?

4. Keywords and key phrases: “Jean Bernadotte”, “Napoleonic era”, “Sweden”, “Field Marshall”, “1810-1818”

5. Alternative key words and phrases: “Charles XIV John”, “Charles III John”, “Prince of Pontecorvo”


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Assignment 1: Research Questions MedievalMedics86

  1. My general topic is medical history in the medieval era, what was some of the techniques scientists used? How did they discover treatments?
    1. My core question is how did science grow in the medical field, did it start off with one thing, then in (x) amount of years how did it change, and why.
    2. I chose this topic because it genuinely interest me, I love medical research. Learning how it changed, how people discovered and studied their findings is worth learning about. There is a lot of different little subjects surrounding medical history, but this certain era really interests me, especially because they did not have ethics at all like we do today when it comes to studies and discoveries.
    1. “How has the history changed beginning in the Medieval times?”
    2. history, medical, change, ethics, and medieval
    3. evolution, documents, and science


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Research Question

  1. Topic: Anesthetics used in the 1800’s
  2.  Core Question: What were the affects of anesthetics?
  3. Research Question: What were the affects from anesthetics used by surgeons in the 1800’s?
  4. Keywords & Key Phrases: “affects”, “anesthetics”, and “1800’s”
  5. Alternative Keywords & Phrases: “Surgeons”

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