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Assignment 2: Information Ethics by PhilosopherMarcusAurelius


Ukrainian Vogue editor suspended for plagiarism of Russian authors

An article by Alec Luhn at The Telegraph News, November 3

This recent example of professional dishonesty really personifies Plagiarism. Plagiarising is using another persons content and presenting it as your own, even if you change the wording in a few places. Plagiarism not only harms the original owner of the work when you benefit off of their work, but it is also very lazy and reflects an unprofessional and dishonest person.

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Assignment #2 Information Ethics Oldmed1800


Kaitlyn Schallhorn, Fox News, Wisconsin Democratic gubernatorial nominee accused of plagiarizing multiple budget proposals, October 22, 2018.

Tony Evers had plagiarized many different articles word for word. In some cases he would cancel out words or switch them out. Plagiarism is still plagiarism whether you change the words or not. His plagiarism dated back to 2012. He had plagiarized some facts sheets, where he only changed one word from the sheet.

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Assignment 2: Information Ethics kinghenrythefifth


“Happy Birthday” song officially recognized in public domain. CBS News. June 27, 2016.

This article is a perfect example of public domain. Public domain is intellectual property that belongs to the public and that can be used freely. However, no one can own the property because it belongs to the public. The “Happy Birthday” song is a widely used song in the public. Almost everyone experiences the song in their lifetime. Thus, the song should belong to the public. In 2016, it was added to the public domain to be freely used by anyone. Thus, it is the perfect example of public domain, intellectual property for the public.


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Assignment 2 : Information Ethics , Cesarsalad1


Faul, Michelle, Seattletimes, Nigeria’s president apologizes for plagiarizing Obama Speech. September 17 ,2016.

This article talks about how Nigeria president plagiarized one of Obama speeches. It shows proof of lines he copy from Obama speech. Even some lines of his speech were identical to Obamas. This articles shows that you that you can’t get away with plagiarism because in the end it bites you in the butt. The president of Nigeria embarrassed himself and had to apologize to the public. If you are going to steal other people words you need to cite then and use sources so you can use there material for your own work.





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Assignment 2: Information Ethics by Atlas1222

McCook, Alison, Stat News,  Prominent health policy researcher plagiarized colleagues’ work, Dartmouth investigation finds. August 20,2018
This article talks about Dr. H. Gilbert Welch a well-known health care policy scholar, who has plagiarized material from a paper that was published in a top medical journal. An investigation team was put on the case and they found out this wasn’t the first time he was “engaged in a research misconduct, plagiarism, by knowingly, and intentionally using the ideas or results without giving them the appropriate credit that they deserve. This article teaches you that you need to be careful about using other people’s work and if you do use their work you need to make sure to give them credit for their work by using the correct citations. If you don’t use the correct citation or steal someone’s work, you could lose your career over it.

This is a good source because in this article they have more than one source to back it up. They have many people/ Universities that state Welch has plagiarized their work and they have proof to back it up. The more sources and witnesses you have in the article the more valuable the article can be.

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Assignment 2 Information Ethics (Plagiarism) by 2018baroquemusic


Hoyt,Clark.New York Times. The Writers Make News. Unfortunately.October 20,2018.

This article from the New York Times shows a great example of plagiarism because it displays what happened to people guilty of it from a professional level. It talked about three situations that had recently happened during the time of the article’s publication. In one of the examples especially, One writer copied writing from a different source and had only changed one word. In result, there were consequences for him and people were wanting to charge him with plagiarism.


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Assignment 1: Research Questions

What is your general topic?   

Medical advancements in WW2.

What is your core question?

What medical advances did the axis powers make during WW2?

Explain (in 2-3 sentences) why you chose to research this aspect of the topic

WW2 was one of the most infamous and compact times in history. So many things happened during WW2, so many horrible things came out of this war. I want to research what good came out of the atrocities in WW2.

Write your research question.

What knowledge or medical advances did the axis powers discover through their inhumane ways of research?

List all of the keywords and key phrases in your research question.

Medicine in WW2, Axis medical advancements, inhumane experiments in WW2

List at least 2 alternative keywords/phrases you could use.  

Medical experiments in WW2, medical discoveries found through inhumane experiments

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Giving Credit (citations)

You need to be able to work with citations for two reasons:
  1. to give credit for the sources you use
  2. to be able to recognize citation patterns in order to determine source type.

This reading will discuss the general patterns that citations follow.  Learning these patterns will help you figure out what kind of source you’re dealing with when you find a reference and will make it easier to do citations for sources you use in your research.

NOTE:  Formatting specific types of sources will be covered in the readings for that type of source.

You must give credit, or cite, all sources that you use in your paper or research project.  To do this, you use notes and citations (also called references.)   Notes & citations perform two functions:
  • They give credit to authors and other creators
  • They give information about a source so that anyone can find it
    • Since you are usually the person who needs to find the source again, it’s in your best interests to be complete.
When you use a note or citation to give credit to a source, you are citing or documenting or referencing that source.

Different groups have developed specific styles, or formats, for creating notes & citations.

 Style guides and manuals provide information about and examples of, specific styles.

The three most frequently used styles are:

  • Chicago/Turabian (University of Chicago Press)
  • MLA (Modern Language Association)  
  • APA (American Psychological Association)

Style guides & manuals provide examples of how to format notes and citations for different types of sources.  They also include the rationale behind the formatting.  Knowing the rationale can help you decide how to do a citation when there isn’t an exact example to follow.

  • Some fields, especially the sciences, refer users to important academic journals  in the field for examples.

Be aware that each style capitalizes titles differently, treats authors’ names differently, puts the year of publication in different places,  and uses different punctuation.

NOTE:   You are responsible for making sure that things are spelled correctly, capitalized correctly, etc.  Word and other citation  programs, such as eTurabian & Zotero, will NOT do that for you.

In addition to examples of citations, style guides also give information on how to do a title page, format captions for images, and  how to do notes, bibliographies and works cited lists, etc.

The  OWL at Purdue University  is a really good online guide to the most common styles.   OWL stands for Online Writing Lab.

In this class you will be required to use Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th edition,   MLA 8th edition or APA 6th edition.   It’s very easy for me to tell when you don’t use the right version, so make sure you use the correct one.  The examples at the OWL@Purdue show the correct versions.  Word does not have the correct version of Chicago/Turabian and may not have the correct MLA & APA, depending on the version of Word you have.   This will be explained in detail in future assignments.

 A WORD ABOUT CHICAGO/TURABIAN:  Turabian style and Chicago style are almost the same thing.  Turabian  is Chicago style that has been adapted for use by students who are writing research papers, theses, and dissertations.  Chicago  style is more for use by people writing books.  For this class, you may use them interchangeably.
Chicago/Turabian gives you the option of using an author/date system or a footnotes/bibliography system.  Because the History Department mostly uses the footnotes/bibliography style, this course will cover just that version.  It may also be called Chicago/Turabian  (or just Chicago or just Turabian) humanities style.  NOTE:  if you’re given a choice, use the author/date system – it’s much, much easier.  A few professors may require you to use an older style where all citation information appears in a footnote.
Notes give credit for a specific quotation,  interpretation, or other piece of information used in the body of a paper, presentation, etc.  Notes are also called footnotes, endnotes,  and parenthetical references.
Each type of note is, of course,  formatted differently.  There are specialized styles where the citation and the note are combined into a footnote or endnote.   Chicago/Turabian used to require this combo note/bibliography style, but no longer does so.  It’s still used by some historians and in some scientific fields.

Word, just to make things difficult, calls notes citations.



Citations give credit to a source as a whole – a whole book, a whole article, a whole web page, etc.  Citations are also called bibliographic citations or references.   Every note should have a matching citation in the bibliography (or reference list or works cited list.)    Also list sources you consulted, even if you didn’t need to use a note. (Exception:  you can leave out sources that you used only for general background, such as encyclopedias.)  

Not sure whether to include a citation?  Better safe than sorry:  include it.

Word, continuing to be difficult,  calls  citations sources in a bibliography or sources in a works cited list.
Remember that Word usage is:
  • Citation =  what most people call a note (includes endnotes and footnotes)
  • Source in a bibliography, reference list or works cited list =  what most people call a citation, bibliographic citation or reference.
A bibliography is a list of sources consulted when writing a paper, preparing a presentation, research project etc.   A Bibliography is also called a reference list or a works cited list.
It often seems like citations are incomprehensible masses of information with an insane use of punctuation. This is only partially true.  All citation styles use the same basic pattern, they just mix it up a bit.
Why do you need to learn citation patterns?    Once you know citation patterns, you will:
  • Be able to understand citations even in styles you don’t know.
  • Be able to put the right information into the right box when using Word’s reference feature or a program like Zotero, eTurabian, or EasyBib.
  • Be able to determine if the citation is for a book or a journal article or a web page.

ANOTHER WORD about Chicago/Turabian:  Chicago/Turabian consists of two styles.  The first is the notes/bibliography/style, often referred to as Chicago/Turabian Humanities.  This style uses footnotes or endnotes plus a bibliography at the end.

 The second style is the author/date style, sometimes referred to as the parenthetical reference style.  Notes take the form of short references in parentheses in the body of the paper,  plus a reference list.
In this class, we will use the notes/bibliography style  as it’s the one used by most history faculty.
FOR THIS CLASS, you will need to understand how citations are formatted for a bibliography or reference list.  You will not be asked to do footnotes, endnotes or parenthetical references.

 Italics, capitalization, punctuation, etc. in the examples below are identical to what you would expect to find in an actual citation.
APA citations are easily spotted because the date follows the author’s name.  If there is no author, APA citations start with the title followed by the date.
 NOTE:  Chicago/Turabian parenthetical style also has the date after the author’s name.

Chicago/Turabian author/date is very similar to APA.  Remember, for this class, you will only need to learn Chicago/Turabian Humanities.  Chicago/Turabian Humanities is similar to MLA.

 NOTE:  MLA no longer requires a medium of publication (for example:  print or web).


Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)  

Author. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
MLA 8th
Author. Title of Book. Publisher location: Publisher name, year of publication.
APA 6th
Author. (Date of publication). Title of book.Publisher location: Publisher name.


Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)  
Author.  “Title of Article.” Title of Journal.  volume number, issue number  (year):  page numbers  accessed Month day, year, URL  (if DOI* is available, use the DOI in place of the URL)  
MLA 8th
Author. “Title of Article.”Title of Journal volume, issue, (date): page numbers. Database publisher or URL if no database. Day Mon. year.

APA 6th

Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:0000/00000 (or URL for journal’s home page if no DOI*.)

WHAT’S A DOI?  DOI stands for digital object identifier.  It’s like a social security number for articles and other similar pieces of information.  You can use the DOI to search for an article, but the system is still developing.  Right now, it’s still better to search for an author and title.

(Cite a single web page.  Don’t cite the whole website unless you’re using it as an example.)

Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)  

Author. “Title of Web Page.”Title of Website. Publication date if known.  Accessed Month day, year, URL

MLA 8th

Author. “Title of Article.”Title of the Website.Publisher Name, Day Mon. Year.  Day Mon. Year retrieved.

 APA 6th

Author. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of the Website. Retrieved from URL of specific article


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Assignment 1: Research Questions , SalemWitchTrial

Question 1. What is your general topic? (1 pts)
The Salem Witch Trials
Question 2. (5 pts.)
a. What is your core question? (4 pts)
How did religion and the Salem Witch Trials influence each other?
b. Explain (in 2-3 sentences) why you chose to research this aspect of the
topic (1 pts)
I am interested in how religion influenced peoples thinking of witches and
how they viewed magic. I also think it is interesting what part of their
religion made them fear these things, and why.
Question 3. (9 pts)
a. Write your research question. (4 pts)
How did religion influence the persecution of Salem “witches?”
b. b. List all of the keywords and key phrases in your research question. (3
Salem witch trials, Salem Witch, Religion and witches
c. List at least 2 alternative keywords/phrases you could use. (2 pts)

Christianity & Witches

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Assignment 1: Research Questions-kinghenrythefifth

  1. Topic: I’m interested in researching prostitution in Victorian Britain.
    • The topic of sex in Victorian Britain has always been fascinating to me because of the ironic manner. Victorian Britain is known to be extremely strict and conservative; however, the sexual practices and the wide existence of prostitution prove otherwise. Thus, I wanted to learn what kind of role and effect prostitution had in Victorian London.
  2. Core Question: What does prostitution tell us about the economic state of Britain in the 19th century?
    • I knew that a lot of the prostitution existed due to a lot of economic hardships in Victorian Britain and prostitution was the main source of income for many women. Thus, I wanted to dig deeper and learn more about what the existence of prostitution meant and what kind of an effect it had on the economy. I wanted to know if prostitution was fueling the economy in a positive way, or if it was creating a bigger problem in the economic growth of the time.
  3. Research Question: What kind of effect did prostitution have on the economic growth of 19th century Britain?
  4. Keywords and Keyphrases: “prostitution,” “Victorian Britain,” “economy,” “19th-century Britain,” “Victorian era,” “economic growth”
  5. Alternative Keywords and Keyphrases: “Sex trade,” “industrial London,” “19th-century England,” “society,” “progressive era”

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