- to give credit for the sources you use
- to be able to recognize citation patterns in order to determine source type.
This reading will discuss the general patterns that citations follow. Learning these patterns will help you figure out what kind of source you’re dealing with when you find a reference and will make it easier to do citations for sources you use in your research.
NOTE: Formatting specific types of sources will be covered in the readings for that type of source.
- They give credit to authors and other creators
- They give information about a source so that anyone can find it
- Since you are usually the person who needs to find the source again, it’s in your best interests to be complete.
Different groups have developed specific styles, or formats, for creating notes & citations.
The three most frequently used styles are:
- Chicago/Turabian (University of Chicago Press)
- MLA (Modern Language Association)
- APA (American Psychological Association)
Style guides & manuals provide examples of how to format notes and citations for different types of sources. They also include the rationale behind the formatting. Knowing the rationale can help you decide how to do a citation when there isn’t an exact example to follow.
- Some fields, especially the sciences, refer users to important academic journals in the field for examples.
Be aware that each style capitalizes titles differently, treats authors’ names differently, puts the year of publication in different places, and uses different punctuation.
NOTE: You are responsible for making sure that things are spelled correctly, capitalized correctly, etc. Word and other citation programs, such as eTurabian & Zotero, will NOT do that for you.
In addition to examples of citations, style guides also give information on how to do a title page, format captions for images, and how to do notes, bibliographies and works cited lists, etc.
In this class you will be required to use Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th edition, MLA 8th edition or APA 6th edition. It’s very easy for me to tell when you don’t use the right version, so make sure you use the correct one. The examples at the OWL@Purdue show the correct versions. Word does not have the correct version of Chicago/Turabian and may not have the correct MLA & APA, depending on the version of Word you have. This will be explained in detail in future assignments.
Word, just to make things difficult, calls notes citations.
Not sure whether to include a citation? Better safe than sorry: include it.
- Citation = what most people call a note (includes endnotes and footnotes)
- Source in a bibliography, reference list or works cited list = what most people call a citation, bibliographic citation or reference.
- Be able to understand citations even in styles you don’t know.
- Be able to put the right information into the right box when using Word’s reference feature or a program like Zotero, eTurabian, or EasyBib.
- Be able to determine if the citation is for a book or a journal article or a web page.
ANOTHER WORD about Chicago/Turabian: Chicago/Turabian consists of two styles. The first is the notes/bibliography/style, often referred to as Chicago/Turabian Humanities. This style uses footnotes or endnotes plus a bibliography at the end.
Chicago/Turabian author/date is very similar to APA. Remember, for this class, you will only need to learn Chicago/Turabian Humanities. Chicago/Turabian Humanities is similar to MLA.
Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)
Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:0000/00000 (or URL for journal’s home page if no DOI*.)
WHAT’S A DOI? DOI stands for digital object identifier. It’s like a social security number for articles and other similar pieces of information. You can use the DOI to search for an article, but the system is still developing. Right now, it’s still better to search for an author and title.
BASIC WEB PAGE
(Cite a single web page. Don’t cite the whole website unless you’re using it as an example.)
Chicago 16th/Turabian 8th (Humanities)
Author. “Title of Web Page.”Title of Website. Publication date if known. Accessed Month day, year, URL
Author. “Title of Article.”Title of the Website.Publisher Name, Day Mon. Year. Day Mon. Year retrieved.
Author. (Year, Month day). Title of article. Title of the Website. Retrieved from URL of specific article